Women’s Center for Mind-Body Health


Gynecology Research  (Physical and Sexual Abuse)










The Center




M-B Health



















   M-B Methods








   Other spec.

























The focus of this research database is on how stress affects women's health,

and options for treatment using mind-body therapies. 

If you are not a health care professional, see new "Medical Glossary" below.  

To obtain full summaries of the articles, see "How to Get Abstracts" below. 




Birth Control

Vulva & Vagina

Dr. - Patient

(Menstrual cramps)


(Bladder problems)

Pelvic Exams

(Heavy bleeding)


Physical and
Sexual Abuse

Menstrual Cycle


Cancer Screening




Cervical Dysplasia
(Abnormal Paps)

Eating Disorders


Pelvic Pain





Lesbian Health


** Gyn Medical Glossary **

** How to Get Abstracts **



Physical, Sexual and Emotional Abuse




Physical effects

Physiological effects

Psychological effects





11955557 R

Violence against women: global scope and magnitude

Overview of world-wide violence against women, including domestic violence, sexual abuse, trafficking, forced prostitution, debt bondage, sex selective abortion, female infanticide, deliberate neglect of girls, and rape in war.

2002 Lancet 359;9313:1232-7

Watts, C. and Zimmerman, C.


11978358 JA

Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention

Primary prevention of domestic violence needs to focus on improving the status of women educationally, economically and socially, and reducing societal norms of poverty, violence and alcohol consumption.

2002 Lancet 359;9315:1423-9

Jewkes, R.


11253251 JA

Domestic violence is a medical issue

Domestic violence affects 4 million women a year, while in 60-75% of these families the children are battered, also. "The physician can make a difference. The medical system is a key part of a coordinated community response to end domestic violence."

2000 J Gend Specif Med 3;5:22-4

Lemon, N. K.


9008585 JA

Intimate partner abuse: developing a framework for change in medical education

Comprehensive and multidimensional article "offers suggestions for changes in the structure of medical education as part of generating a health care system contribution to ending abuse in this society."

1997 Acad Med 72;1 Suppl:S26-37

Warshaw, C.


11788106 R,T

Training programs for healthcare professionals in domestic violence

Review of healthcare provider training programs in domestic violence detection and treatment shows significant deficiencies.

2001 J Womens Health Gend Based Med 10;10:953-69

Davidson, L. L., Grisso, J. A., Garcia-Moreno, C., Garcia, J., King, V. J., and Marchant, S.


11856663 R,T

Primary care and victims of domestic violence

"Providing quality health care involves integrating routine inquiry about domestic violence into ongoing clinical practice. Whether or not a woman chooses to use services or leave her partner, our intervention is very important."

2002 Prim Care 29;1:125-50, vii-viii

Yeager, K. and Seid, A.


7573225 JA

The battered woman

Suggests ob/gyns take a proactive role in the community against domestic violence by being informed about community resources as well as integrating questions related to battering in all primary care, ob and gyn evaluations.

1995 Am J Obstet Gynecol 173;3 Pt 1:677-9

Chez, R. A. and Jones, R. F. 3rd


11579911 R,T

ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) educational bulletin. Adult manifestation of childhood sexual abuse, number 259, July 2000. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists

Review of adult psychological, physical and behavioral symptoms in survivors of childhood sexual abuse, who have "disproportionately high use of health care services, more severe symptoms with more complex patterns of presentation, and often somatic symptoms that do not respond to routine treatment." Includes step by step how to handle a screening interview, provide positive messages, referrals, and how to avoid retraumatization via medical examinations and procedures.

2001 Int J Gynaecol Obstet 74;3:311-20


8990716 R,T

Sequelae of abuse. Health effects of childhood sexual abuse, domestic battering, and rape

One third to one half of all women will experience one or more types of abuse in their lifetime. Article reviews the health effects of childhood sexual abuse, domestic battering and rape, with recommendations for screening and intervention.

1996 J Nurse Midwifery 41;6:442-56

Bohn, D. K. and Holz, K. A.


1599346 JA

Inquiry about victimization experiences. A survey of patient preferences and physician practices

Almost 80% of 164 Bostonian patients felt doctors should routinely inquire about physical and sexual abuse. One third of the physicians felt they should inquire, but did not 90% of the time.

1992 Arch Intern Med 152;6:1186-90

Friedman, L. S., Samet, J. H., Roberts, M. S., Hudlin, M., and Hans, P.


11929365 JA

A statewide survey of domestic violence screening behaviors among pediatricians and family physicians

Only 12% of 438 Connecticut pediatric primary care providers routinely screened for domestic violence. Prior training was the strongest predictor of routine screening.

2002 Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156;4:332-6

Lapidus, G., Cooke, M. B., Gelven, E., Sherman, K., Duncan, M., and Banco, L.


11326804 JA

Post-traumatic stress disorder in extremely poor women: implications for health care clinicians

Many women in difficult socio-economic circumstances have histories of physical and sexual abuse, and subsequent development of PTSD. These women develop more chronic health conditions, have problematic relationships with their health care providers, and perceive more barriers to care. "Without routine screening for PTSD and sensitive treatment, many extremely poor women will receive compromised health care and may even be retraumatized."

2001 J Am Med Womens Assoc 56;2:79-85

Bassuk, E. L., Dawson, R., Perloff, J., and Weinreb, L.





7769770 JA

Domestic violence against women. Incidence and prevalence in an emergency department population

78% of 648 female Denver ER patients participated in a survey. Lifetime prevalence of domestic violence (DV) was 54.2%, acute DV in women with a male partner was 11.7% and without a current partner 5.6%. Women with a past or present history of DV had a significantly higher history of suicide attempts (26% vs 8%) and excessive alcohol use (24% vs. 13%). Of the 47 women presenting for care because of trauma for DV, only six either told or were asked about this by ER staff.

1995 JAMA 273;22:1763-7

Abbott, J., Johnson, R., Koziol-McLain, J., and Lowenstein, S. R.


9701078 JA

Prevalence of intimate partner abuse in women treated at community hospital emergency departments

74% of 4641 women seen in community ERs in California and Pennsylvania responded to an anonymous survey. 36.9% reported lifetime emotional or physical abuse, and 14.4% past year physical or sexual abuse. California had significantly higher rates than Pennsylvania.

1998 JAMA 280;5:433-8

Dearwater, S. R., Coben, J. H., Campbell, J. C., Nah, G., Glass, N., McLoughlin, E., and Bekemeier, B.


8213237 JA

The prevalence rate of sexual trauma in a primary care clinic

Of women seen in a Seattle primary care clinic, 37% reported a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 29% adult sexual assault. 61% felt it appropriate for healthcare providers to ask about abuse history, but only 4% of patients had been asked.

1993 J Am Board Fam Pract 6;5:465-71

Walker, E. A., Torkelson, N., Katon, W. J., and Koss, M. P.


9422005 JA

Prevalence of abuse of women with physical disabilities

Women with physical disabilities were as likely as women without disabilities to have been physically or sexually abused in their lives. In addition, they reported abuse by attendants and healthcare providers, and were more likely to experience a longer duration of abuse.

1997 Arch Phys Med Rehabil 78;12 Suppl 5:S34-8

Young, M. E., Nosek, M. A., Howland, C., Chanpong, G., and Rintala, D. H.


10754969 JA

Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: physical, sexual, and psychological battering

Of 1401 women attending a family practice clinic in South Carolina, 55.1% had ever experienced intimate partner violence, and 20.2% were currently experiencing this. Of those with an abuse history, 77.3% had experienced physical or sexual violence, and 22.7% psychological abuse alone. Alcohol and/or drug abuse by the male partner was the strongest correlate of violence.

2000 Am J Public Health 90;4:553-9

Coker, A. L., Smith, P. H., McKeown, R. E., and King, M. J.


10495264 JA

Medical profile of women Veterans Administration outpatients who report a history of sexual assault occurring while in the military

In a mail-in survey of 3632 female veterans, 23% reported a history of sexual assault while in the military. These women had a statistically significant increase in all medical conditions surveyed.

1999 J Womens Health Gend Based Med 8;6:835-45

Frayne, S. M., Skinner, K. M., Sullivan, L. M., Tripp, T. J., Hankin, C. S., Kressin, N. R., and Miller, D. R.


1890502 JA

Prevalence of domestic violence among patients in three ambulatory care internal medicine clinics

In a 72% response to a survey of three California university internal medicine clinics, 28% had experienced domestic violence, and 14% were currently experiencing this. DV occurred in all groups, regardless of sex, ethnicity, age, or socioeconomic status.

1991 J Gen Intern Med 6;4:317-22

Gin, N. E., Rucker, L., Frayne, S., Cygan, R., and Hubbell, F. A.


1434879 JA

Health risk behaviors and medical sequelae of childhood sexual abuse

22% of 511 Midwestern family practice clinic patients reported a history of sexual abuse on a questionnaire. They had significantly more medical problems and health risk behaviors, with a direct correlation between the more severe abuse history and more severe medical problems. Fewer than 2% had discussed the abuse with a physician.

1992 Mayo Clin Proc 67;6:527-32

Springs, F. E. and Friedrich, W. N.


11587279 JA

The physical, sexual and emotional violence history of middle-aged women: a community-based prevalence study

In a longitudinal Australian women's midlife health study, 362 women reported: 28.5% had experienced domestic violence during their lives, 5.5% during the past year; 11.8% sexual assault as an adult, 8.9% childhood physical abuse, 42.3% childhood non-contact sexual abuse, and 35.7% childhood contact sexual abuse.

2001 Med J Aust 175;4:199-201

Mazza, D., Dennerstein, L., Garamszegi, C. V., and Dudley, E. C.


8559088 JA

Physical, sexual and emotional violence against women: a general practice-based prevalence study

In this Australian study of 3026 women seen in general medical practices with a 72% response rate, 10% had experienced severe physical domestic violence in the previous year, 13% rape or attempted rape, 10% had been severely beaten during childhood, and 28% had experienced childhood sexual abuse. Only 27% of physical abuse victims had disclosed this to their physician, and only 9% of sexually abused women.

1996 Med J Aust 164;1:14-7

Mazza, D., Dennerstein, L., and Ryan, V.





Physical effects


10527034 JA

Adult health status of women with histories of childhood abuse and neglect

1225 Seattle women from an HMO who had experienced any type of childhood abuse had significantly poorer overall health, greater physical and emotional disability, more distressing physical symptoms, and increased health risk behaviors.

1999 Am J Med 107;4:332-9

Walker, E. A., Gelfand, A., Katon, W. J., Koss, M. P., Von Korff, M., Bernstein, D., and Russo, J.


10798843 JA

Chronic pain and health care utilization in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse

Canadian women with a history of sexual abuse had more chronic pain conditions, surgeries, hospital visits and physician visits than those without abuse.

2000 Child Abuse Negl 24;4:547-56

Finestone, H. M., Stenn, P., Davies, F., Stalker, C., Fry, R., and Koumanis, J.


11824722 JA

Physical symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder, and healthcare utilization of women with and without childhood physical and sexual abuse

14% participation of a random group of female Kaiser Oakland patients showed that those who had a history of physical and sexual childhood abuse had significantly more chronic physical symptoms, medical visits, prescription use and PTSD. The second most affected group had "unclear memory", and the third ranking of these variables was in those who had had physical abuse alone.

2001 Psychol Rep 89;3:595-606

Farley, M. and Patsalides, B. M.


10695516 JA

The effects of daily stressors on physical health in women with and without a childhood history of sexual abuse

College age healthy women with a history of childhood sexual abuse were more susceptible to daily stress, manifested by physical symptoms.

2000 Child Abuse Negl 24;2:209-21

Thakkar, R. R. and McCanne, T. R.


11139004 JA

Sexual assault and physical health: findings from a population-based study of older adults

In a white, upper middle class older population (median age 75) of 1359 men and women, 5.4% of men and 12.7% of women reported a history of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was statistically associated in women with increased risk of arthritis and breast cancer, while for men it was thyroid disease. There was a dose-response effect, with the more incidence of abuse, the greater the risk factor.

2000 Psychosom Med 62;6:838-43

Stein, M. B. and Barrett-Connor, E.


10340295 R,T

Front and rear: the pelvic floor is an integrated functional structure

This article presents the view of the pelvic floor as an integrated functional unit of the urologic, genital and intestinal systems. Sexual abuse leaves a "body signature of the trauma" that has subsequent physical effects, requiring coordination of specialists in several fields. [See research section of Other Specialties for gastrointestinal articles.]

1999 Med Hypotheses 52;2:147-53

Devroede, G.


10737055 R,T

Early life abuses in the past history of patients with gastrointestinal tract and pelvic floor dysfunctions

Case histories of the psychological influence of sexual abuse victims who have pelvic floor dysfunctions--i.e. gastrointestinal as well as urinary or vaginal. Many also have decreased sensation in the genital area, which they think is normal, and which is rarely recognized. "The majority of physicians are not trained to screen for, or manage patients who have been harmed by violence and sexual invasion; consequently, many do not want to open 'Pandora's boxes' by asking violence-related and sexuality-related questions. They may also fear offending a patient and upsetting their office routine by taking too much time with the medical interview."

2000 Prog Brain Res 122;131-55

Devroede, G.


10439976 JA

"I was always on guard"--an exploration of woman abuse in a group of women with musculoskeletal pain

11/20 women participating in a support group for chronic musculoskeletal pain experienced ongoing abuse. They were reluctant to disclose this due to shame, fear of listener's preconceptions, and fear of the abuser. In interviews they dropped hints, looking for "an understanding listener", wanting the listener to take the hint and ask. Importance of asking more than once. "Fear of the abuser permeated the narratives."

1999 Fam Pract 16;3:238-44

Hamberg, K., Johansson, E. E., and Lindgren, G.


10810951 JA

Physical health consequences of physical and psychological intimate partner violence

Domestic violence screening tools usually ask just about sexual or physical violence, but 13.6% of women seen in South Carolina family practice clinics experienced psychological abuse alone. This group of women, who would have been missed with usual screening, sustained the same increased relative risks of many health problems as women who had been physically abused.

2000 Arch Fam Med 9;5:451-7

Coker, A. L., Smith, P. H., Bethea, L., King, M. R., and McKeown, R. E.


2322719 JA

Medical problems of adults who were sexually abused in childhood

Case histories are presented of 7 patients, aged 22-39, whose childhood sexual abuse was only recognized late in their medical histories. These patients each had a mean of 18 non-psychiatric consultant contacts, and a mean of eight operations, with normal findings 70% of the time. They had multiple symptoms which had led to evaluations and interventions in the specialties of gynecology, obstetrics, gastroenterology, urology, rheumatology, hematology, orthopedics, neurology and neuropsychiatry. The possibility of childhood sexual abuse should be considered earlier in such cases.

1990 BMJ 300;6726:705-8

Arnold, R. P., Rogers, D., and Cook, D. A.


9305691 JA

The meaning of symptoms in 10 women with somatization disorder and a history of childhood abuse

Patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse and multiple medical problems may hide their feelings, but at the same time want acknowledgment of their suffering. "Childhood attempts to tell adults about the abuse resulted in threats of punishment, contributing to lifelong patterns of secrecy, even with physicians...The women reported that their current physicians denied their physical pain as adults, just as the abusers denied their emotional and physical pain in childhood."

1997 Arch Fam Med 6;5:468-76

Morse, D. S., Suchman, A. L., and Frankel, R. M.




Physiological effects


10918705 JA

Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system hyper-reactivity, presumably due to CRF hypersecretion, is a persistent consequence of childhood abuse. This may contribute to the many increased physical and psychological problems these patients experience.

2000 JAMA 284;5:592-7

Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Heit, S., Graham, Y. P., Wilcox, M., Bonsall, R., Miller, A. H., and Nemeroff, C. B.


11776416 JA

Psychophysiological reactivity in female sexual abuse survivors

Childhood sexual abuse survivors with PTSD exhibited increased autonomic reactivity in response to stress.

2001 J Trauma Stress 14;4:667-83

McDonagh-Coyle, A., McHugo, G. J., Friedman, M. J., Schnurr, P. P., Zayfert, C., and Descamps, M.


9874903 CT

Psychophysiologic assessment of women with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from childhood sexual abuse

Measurement of multiple physical parameters during various imagery scenarios in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse, showed that those with present PTSD were hyper-responsive compared to a control group. Those who had had PTSD in the past were in between.

1998 J Consult Clin Psychol 66;6:906-13

Orr, S. P., Lasko, N. B., Metzger, L. J., Berry, N. J., Ahern, C. E., and Pitman, R. K.


7485635 JA

Effect of previous trauma on acute plasma cortisol level following rape

In women without a history of previous assault, serum cortisol levels were elevated two days after high-severity rape. In women who had had a previous sexual assault history, rape caused a lower cortisol level, but an increased risk of PTSD at three months. [One theory is that chronic stress can lead to "adrenal exhaustion" and inability to raise cortisol levels.]

1995 Am J Psychiatry 152;11:1675-7

Resnick, H. S., Yehuda, R., Pitman, R. K., and Foy, D. W.


11015810 R

Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders

Thorough and logical review of how adverse experience may alter the morphology of the human brain. Cushing syndrome, depression and PTSD all cause hippocampal atrophy, and are compared. In PTSD, hippocampal volume has been shown to decrease by 5-26%. It is not known whether these changes happen before (and therefore make a person vulnerable to PTSD), or are the result of trauma, or the result of PTSD, but changes appear to be permanent. These changes are also associated with memory deficits, and variable levels of cortisol--studies have variously shown low, normal or elevated levels. The hippocampal changes with depression also appear to also be permanent, but those with Cushings are reversible with treatment.

2000 Arch Gen Psychiatry 57;10:925-35

Sapolsky, R. M.


9234472 JA

Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse

In this study, women who had experienced severe childhood sexual abuse had a significantly smaller left-sided hippocampus (5%). Reduction in volume correlated highly with dissociative symptom severity. It is not known whether this might be a consequence of abuse, or a risk factor. [Hippocampal neuron loss has been documented in rats subject to chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis. J Neurosci 14:5373-5380, 1994.]

1997 Psychol Med 27;4:951-9

Stein, M. B., Koverola, C., Hanna, C., Torchia, M. G., and McClarty, B.


8988792 MCC

Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse--a preliminary report

Patients with PTSD from childhood abuse had 12% smaller left hippocampal volume than matched controls, even after multiple variables were considered.

1997 Biol Psychiatry 41;1:23-32

Bremner, J. D., Randall, P., Vermetten, E., Staib, L., Bronen, R. A., Mazure, C., Capelli, S., McCarthy, G., Innis, R. B., and Charney, D. S.


10341534 JA

Phenotype of blood lymphocytes in PTSD suggests chronic immune activation

Patients with PTSD associated childhood sexual abuse had a statistically significant increase in lymphocyte activation over a control group.

1999 Psychosomatics 40;3:222-5

Wilson, S. N., van der Kolk, B., Burbridge, J., Fisler, R., and Kradin, R.


11232214 CT

Negative life experiences, depression, and immune function in abused and nonabused women

Domestically abused women were significantly more likely to have experienced higher levels of depression, and have impaired T cell function.

2000 Biol Res Nurs 1;3:190-8

Constantino, R. E., Sekula, L. K., Rabin, B., and Stone, C.


10200737 JA

Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: A PET investigation

Detailed examination of the different regions of increased or decreased brain blood flow when women with a history of childhood sexual abuse recall neutral or abuse memories, as well as differences in those women with or without current PTSD.

1999 Am J Psychiatry 156;4:575-84

Shin, L. M., McNally, R. J., Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., Rauch, S. L., Alpert, N. M., Metzger, L. J., Lasko, N. B., Orr, S. P., and Pitman, R. K.



Psychological effects


7804770 R,T

Immediate and long-term impacts of child sexual abuse

Discusses the adult consequences of childhood sexual abuse, including PTSD, cognitive distortion, emotional pain, avoidance, impaired sense of self and interpersonal difficulties. Modifiers of response include individual and environmental factors pre and post the abuse.

1994 Future Child 4;2:54-69

Briere, J. N. and Elliott, D. M.


11413867 R,T

Interpersonal functioning among women reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse: empirical findings and methodological issues

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse have increased risk for dysfunction in intimate partner relations, disturbed sexual functioning, and difficulties in the parental role.

2001 Clin Psychol Rev 21;4:553-76

DiLillo, D.


10883556 JA

Sexual abuse and sexual function: an examination of sexually relevant cognitive processes

Sexually abused women have more problematic adult sexual functioning. In this study sexually abused women attributed different meanings to many sexuality-relevant concepts compared to a control group

2000 J Consult Clin Psychol 68;3:399-406

Meston, C. M. and Heiman, J. R.


9134941 JA

Clinical characteristics of women with a history of childhood abuse: unhealed wounds

Maryland women who had experienced childhood abuse alone were just as likely as women with adult abuse alone to have increased physical symptoms, depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, abuse drugs or alcohol, and have attempted suicide. Patients who reported both childhood and adult abuse had even higher levels of these problems.

1997 JAMA 277;17:1362-8

McCauley, J., Kern, D. E., Kolodner, K., Dill, L., Schroeder, A. F., DeChant, H. K., Ryden, J., Derogatis, L. R., and Bass, E. B.


10397623 R,T

Psychological abuse: a variable deserving critical attention in domestic violence

Discusses definition and properties of psychological abuse, and reviews studies showing that psychological abuse can have as much negative impact as, and almost always precedes, physical abuse.

1999 Violence Vict 14;1:3-23

O'Leary, K. D.


10397629 JA

The impact of different forms of psychological abuse on battered women

Four themes emerged from interviews with women who were psychologically abused: ridiculing of traits, criticizing behavior, ignoring, and jealous control. Ridiculing of traits was rated as the most difficult for women, and ignoring was the strongest predictor of low self-esteem.

1999 Violence Vict 14;1:105-17

Sackett, L. A. and Saunders, D. G.


9560171 JA

Effects of sexual victimization on suicidal ideation and behavior in U.S. college women

Among college women in New York, childhood as well as adult sexual victimization predicted increased risk of suicidal behavior. 25% of rape victims had engaged in a suicidal act.

1998 Suicide Life Threat Behav 28;1:107-26

Stepakoff, S.


11253384 MCC

The effects of sexual abuse on body image, self-image, and sexual activity of women

Women who had been sexually abused had more body dissatisfaction, body self-consciousness in relationships, and eating disorders.

2000 J Gend Specif Med 3;6:54-60

Kearney-Cooke, A. and Ackard, D. M.


11578665 JA

Major depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder comorbidity in female victims of intimate partner violence

In 44 San Diego women who had experienced intimate partner violence in the past two years, there was a 68.2% lifetime incidence and 18.2% prevalence of major depression, and a 50% incidence and 31.8% prevalence of PTSD. Severity of depressive and PTSD symptoms were highly correlated.

2001 J Affect Disord 66;2-3:133-8

Stein, M. B. and Kennedy, C.


11589541 JA

Adverse childhood experiences and sexual risk behaviors in women: a retrospective cohort study

Women with a history of childhood physical or sexual abuse had a significant increase in risky sexual behaviors, including earlier sexual experiences and likelihood of greater than 30 partners.

2001 Fam Plann Perspect 33;5:206-11

Hillis, S. D., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., and Marchbanks, P. A.


8221221 JA

Dissociative experiences and disorders among women who identify themselves as sexual abuse survivors

In this group of 51 Canadian abuse survivors, 88.2% had a dissociative disorder of some type, including 54.9% with a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder. The importance of being knowledgeable about dissociation when treating these patients is stressed.

1993 Child Abuse Negl 17;5:677-86

Anderson, G., Yasenik, L., and Ross, C. A.


8916528 JA

Childhood victimization and subsequent risk for promiscuity, prostitution, and teenage pregnancy: a prospective study

Early childhood abuse and/or neglect was a significant predictor of female prostitution.

1996 Am J Public Health 86;11:1607-12

Widom, C. S. and Kuhns, J. B.


11502082 JA

Patterns of recovery from trauma: the use of intraindividual analysis

Sexual assault victims experienced more severe peak reactions and had slower recovery rates from their assault than non-sexual assault victims. Victims who had delayed reactions had overall more severe pathology at the end of the three month study.

2001 J Abnorm Psychol 110;3:392-400

Gilboa-Schechtman, E. and Foa, E. B.


10761176 JA

Anger, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder among female assault victims

Four weeks after sexual assault, anger was predictive of later PTSD severity, and dissociation was predictive of poorer later social functioning.

2000 J Trauma Stress 13;1:89-100

Feeny, N. C., Zoellner, L. A., and Foa, E. B.


10646179 JA

Prevalence of depressive and alcohol abuse symptoms among women VA outpatients who report experiencing sexual assault while in the military

23% of 3632 VA women outpatients reported military-related sexual assault. These women experienced 3 times higher depression and 2 times higher alcohol abuse rates than women not assaulted.

1999 J Trauma Stress 12;4:601-12

Hankin, C. S., Skinner, K. M., Sullivan, L. M., Miller, D. R., Frayne, S., and Tripp, T. J.






11495093 R,T

Women and traumatic events

Discusses PTSD, its formations from traumatic events in women's lives, and impact of different forms of therapy. "Traumatic experience violates the beliefs inherent in human beings that the world is benevolent and that the self is invulnerable."

2001 J Clin Psychiatry 62 Suppl 17;29-34

Foa, E. B. and Street, G. P.


11498812 JA

Experiences of women healing from childhood sexual abuse

Discussion with 14 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse on what did and did not help them heal.

2001 Arch Psychiatr Nurs 15;4:188-94

Glaister, J. A. and Abel, E.


11928303 JA

Beyond survival: reclaiming self after leaving an abusive male partner

Discusses the stage of "moving on" after leaving an abusive partner.

2001 Can J Nurs Res 32;4:79-94

Wuest, J. and Merritt-Gray, M.


11768058 JA

Coping with sexual harassment: personal, environmental, and cognitive determinants

In a survey of over 50,000 military members with a 56% response rate, 78% of women and 38% of men reported one or more harassment incidents in the previous year. This article examines coping strategies, which vary depending on multiple factors including occupational status, race, gender, psychological climate, severity of harassment and power differential. Frequency and duration were a better predictor of method of coping than type of harassment.

2001 J Appl Psychol 86;6:1152-66

Malamut, A. B. and Offermann, L. R.


10948806 JA

Generalization effects of coping-skills training: influence of self-defense training on women's efficacy beliefs, assertiveness, and aggression

Self defense training increased women's self-efficacy and assertiveness, but not hostility or aggression.

2000 J Appl Psychol 85;4:625-33

Weitlauf, J. C., Smith, R. E., and Cervone, D.


9990441 JA

Perceptions of control and long-term recovery from rape

Rape victims who had stronger beliefs in personal competence and control had less associated rates of depression and PTSD.

1999 Am J Orthopsychiatry 69;1:110-5

Regehr, C., Cadell, S., and Jansen, K.


10504107 CT

Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study

Psychological distress at the time of a post rape exam is strongly related to PTSD 6 weeks later. A hospital based video was successful in reducing anxiety during the forensic exam. This 17 minute video discussed the details of the exam, showing a model successfully and calmly completing the procedure, and presented useful information for victims on how to prevent future depression, panic, etc.

1999 J Anxiety Disord 13;4:359-70

Resnick, H., Acierno, R., Holmes, M., Kilpatrick, D. G., and Jager, N.


7844767 JA

Projective drawings: helping adult survivors of childhood abuse recognize boundaries

Many adult survivors of childhood trauma have complex boundary problems of which they are unaware. Art therapy can help them recognize and understand these issues.

1994 J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 32;10:28-34

Glaister, J. A.


7862499 JA

Clara's story: post-traumatic response and therapeutic art

Case example of use of art therapy in recovery from childhood abuse.

1994 Perspect Psychiatr Care 30;1:17-22

Glaister, J. A.


1613683 JA

Therapy through art. Facilitating treatment of sexual abuse

Art therapy may allow traumatic memories to surface; adults survivors of childhood abuse may have a child's concept of the traumatic event.

1992 J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 30;6:15-24

Bowers, J. J.


1602434 JA

The art of therapeutic drawing. Helping chronic trauma survivors

Survivors of chronic trauma are unaware of what is "normal". Art therapy can aid in expressing emotions and facilitate awareness of the dynamics of abuse. Sequential drawings help patients identify changes and improvements. Article has many examples and discussion.

1992 J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 30;5:9-17

Glaister, J. A. and McGuinness, T.


11437118 JA

Social reactions to rape victims: healing and hurtful effects on psychological and physical health outcomes

Rape victims who had someone believe their account or were allowed to talk about their experience in a manner they considered to be healing, had fewer subsequent emotional and physical problems.

2001 Violence Vict 16;3:287-302

Campbell, R., Ahrens, C. E., Sefl, T., Wasco, S. M., and Barnes, H. E.


11876435 JA

Support groups for older victims of domestic violence

Review of nationwide support groups for older victims of domestic violence showed that the major barrier was resistance of this age group to participate in a group experience, and that it was important to have at least one of the co-leaders be in a similar age category.

2001 J Women Aging 13;4:71-83

Wolf, R. S


11776424 JA

Effects of writing about rape: evaluating Pennebaker's paradigm with a severe trauma

Undergraduate women who wrote about and then read out loud a description of their rape experience, had decreased traumatic symptoms if they included greater detail and a moderate level of personalization (emotion) in the description. It didn't matter whether they read aloud to themselves or to another person.

2001 J Trauma Stress 14;4:781-90

Brown, E. J. and Heimberg, R. G.


3372832 RCT

Disclosure of traumas and immune function: health implications for psychotherapy

Healthy undergraduates who wrote about traumatic experiences had significantly increased physical symptoms and negative moods immediately after writing, but at six weeks were happier and had had less health center visits than a control group. Students who wrote about something they had never disclosed before also had significantly enhanced immune response.

1988 J Consult Clin Psychol 56;2:239-45

Pennebaker, J. W., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., and Glaser, R.


8434564 JA

Turning symptoms into allies: utilization approaches with posttraumatic symptoms

Case series of successfully using imagery with symptoms connected to the trauma of childhood sexual abuse.

1993 Am J Clin Hypn 35;3:179-89

Phillips, M.


11151488 JA

Treatment of reactivated post-traumatic stress disorder. Imaginal exposure in an older adult with multiple traumas

Single case report of use of imagery exposure therapy in a woman with reactivated PTSD from childhood sexual abuse after a traumatic medical experience.

2001 Behav Modif 25;1:94-115

Russo, S. A., Hersen, M., and Van Hasselt, V. B.


11472867 CT

Treatment of chronic nightmares in adjudicated adolescent girls in a residential facility

Teenage girls who experienced nightmares related to sexual abuse (average age of 15 with 20 nightmares a month for 4.5 years) were given a one day workshop on using imagery rehearsal therapy to change their nightmares while in a waking state. They practiced this imagery for 5-20 min/day. At 3 months, there was a 71% reduction in nightmares/month (p = .01).

2001 J Adolesc Health 29;2:94-100

Krakow, B., Sandoval, D., Schrader, R., Keuhne, B., McBride, L., Yau, C. L., and Tandberg, D.


11476655 RCT

Imagery rehearsal therapy for chronic nightmares in sexual assault survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial

Women with PTSD from sexual trauma who had chronic nightmares were given three sessions of imagery rehearsal therapy. Subsequently they had significantly decreased incidence of nightmares, improved sleep quality and decreased PTSD symptoms, the effects of which were sustained at 6 months.

2001 JAMA 286;5:537-45

Krakow, B., Hollifield, M., Johnston, L., Koss, M., Schrader, R., Warner, T. D., Tandberg, D., Lauriello, J., McBride, L., Cutchen, L., Cheng, D., Emmons, S., Germain, A., Melendrez, D., Sandoval, D., and Prince, H.


8434562 JA

Brief hypnotic treatment of repetitive nightmares

Case histories of using hypnosis to eradicate repetitive nightmares. Three techniques are discussed: 1) changing elements of the dream to make it non-harmful; 2) encouraging the patient to face the nightmare, but with more protection or control; and 3) viewing the nightmare as incomplete and having the patient finish it in a positive manner.

1993 Am J Clin Hypn 35;3:161-9

Kingsbury, S. J.


2664731 R,T

Hypnosis in the treatment of victims of sexual abuse

Thorough discussion of the use of hypnosis in sexual abuse, especially addressing self-blame and personality fragmentation. Parallels between formal hypnosis and PTSD are addressed, including absorption, dissociation and suggestibility.

1989 Psychiatr Clin North Am 12;2:295-305

Spiegel, D.


9329448 R,T

Trauma and women: course, predictors, and treatment

Three months after trauma, PTSD was found in 48% of rape victims and 25% of nonsexual crime victims. Prolonged exposure treatment and stress inoculation training (which includes techniques for managing anxiety including controlled breathing, relaxation and thought stopping) were both felt to be effective treatments.

1997 J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 9;25-8

Foa, E. B.


10224729 RCT

A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims

In female assault victims with PTSD, exposure therapy, stress inoculation training or their combination were equally effective.

1999 J Consult Clin Psychol 67;2:194-200

Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., and Street, G. P.


10382145 News

Yoga, meditation, help teen sex offenders

Report of a program for male teen sex offenders, where use of yoga, meditation and breathing exercises reduced stress, anxiety, sexual impulses and relapse.

1999 J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 37;6:6





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